A e biography alexander the great

a e biography alexander the great Philip and his army joined his son in BC, and they marched south through Thermopylae , taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison. Alexander the Great 's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from to B.C. During his time of leadership, he united Greece, Alexander the Great apozymase.ferroprettyuop.site Author. He continued marching south toward Egypt but was again held up by resistance at Gaza. The Royal Society of New Zealand.

After this the Macedonians were reconciled with their king and 10, of them set out for Europe, leaving their children of Asian women with Alexander. There were 40, Persians and Greeks 20, each waiting for them at the crossing of the river Granicus, near the ancient city of Troy.

The city where Alexander's father was kept as hostage for three years, was plundered, sacked, burned, and razed to the ground, just like Philip acted with Methone, Olynthus, and the rest of the Greek cities in Chalcidice. Gold a e biography alexander the great of Lysimachus with bust of Alexander the Great. At the Battle of Chaeronea the Greeks were defeated and Alexander displayed his a e biography alexander the great by destroying the elite Greek force, the Theban Secret Band.

Both Greece and Bulgaria had been condemned numerous times for the oppression of their large Macedonian minorities which they had stripped off basic human rights, ever since the partition of the country. General Coenus spoke on army's behalf to the king. They were the world's liberators and one day they would pass the frontiers set by Hercules and Father Liber. In the spring of BC, Alexander and his army marched into India invading Punjab.

But far greater number of Greeks joined the Persians brushing away the memory of the Persian invasion of Greece some years ago. He no longer needed these hostages and potential troublemakers.

a e biography alexander the great

Alexander's Death In the spring ofAlexander held a great victory celebration at Susa. He forced his way into Greece despite the roads leading to the country being blocked by the Thessalians. To that date nobody had succeeded in raveling the knot. As soon as he restored Macedonian rule in northern Greece, he marched into southern Greece. The trial of Philotas took place in Asia before a multiethnic a e biography alexander the great, which has accepted Greek as their common language.

Philip stood up, drew his sword, and charged at Alexander, only to trip and a e biography alexander the great on his face in his drunken stupor at which Alexander shouted: He then took his mother and fled the country to Epirus. Family Split and the Assassination of Philip II. Porus was captured and like the other local rulers he had defeated, Alexander allowed him to continue to govern his territory.

He stepped onto the shore, pulled the weapon from the soil, and declared that the whole of Asia would be won by the Macedonian spear. Parmenio was a veteran, proven solder of Philip's guard, a men who played a major part in leading the Macedonian armies and rising the country to a world power. Believing that Greece a e biography alexander the great remain calm, Alexander returned to Macedonia, marched east into Thrace, and campaigned as far as the Danube river.

Alexander prayed for unity between Macedonians and Persians and by breeding a new army of mixed blood he hoped to create a core of a new royal army which would be attached only to him. The Macedonian Empire of Alexander the Great After Alexander After his death, nearly all the noble Susa marriages dissolved, which shows that the Macedonians despised the idea. But the young Macedonian king simply slashed it with his sword and unraveling its ends.

Alexander the Great: Facts, Biography & Accomplishments

They were not aware that the Athenians and the Peloponnesians, stunned by the speed of the Macedonian king, quickly reconsidered their options and were now awaiting the outcome of the battle before they make their next a e biography alexander the great.

Describing the atmosphere before a battle, the Roman historian Curtius explained how Alexander raised the morale of the Macedonians, Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians in his army, one at the time: The Macedonians, who had won so many battles in Europe and set off to invade Asia They were the world's liberators and one day they would pass the frontiers set by Hercules and Father Liber.

In the spring of Alexander made a pilgrimage to the great temple and oracle of Amon-Ra, the Egyptian god of the sun, whom the Greeks and Macedonians identified with Zeus Ammon. He conquered the lands between rivers Tigris and Euphrates and found the Persian army at the plains of Gaugamela, near modern Irbil in Iraq, which according to the exaggerated accounts of antiquity was said to number a million men.

Alexander continued his pursuit of Darius for hundreds of miles from Persepolis. He decided to make the dangerous trip across the desert to visit the oracle at the temple of the god.

One of the a e biographies alexander the great in which the army stopped belonged to the Malli, who were said to be one of the most warlike of the Indian tribes.

But let him by all means speak in whatever way he desires, provided that you remember that he holds out customs in as much abhorrence as our language. Darius fled to Ecbatana in Media, and Alexander occupied Babylon, the imperial capital Susa, and the Persian capital Persepolis, and was henceforth proclaimed king of Asia.

Greece remained under Macedonian rule. Alexander Mosaic found in Pompeii. The Greek commander Memnon and his men considerably slow down the advance of Alexander and many Macedonians died during the long and difficult sieges of the Greek cities of Halicarnassus, Miletus, Mylasa. He never lived to see it built, but Alexandria will become a major economic and cultural center in the Mediterranean world not only ines rosales biography the Macedonian rule in Egypt but centuries after.

His speed surprised the Greeks and by the end of the summer BC they had no other choice but to acknowledge his authority. Ten's of thousands of Persians, Greeks, and other Asiatic soldiers were killed and king Darius fled in panic before the Macedonian phalanx, abandoning his mother, wife, and children behind. Enraged Alexander pointed the main ringleaders to his bodyguards to be punished and then gave his famous speech where he reminded the Macedonians that without him and his father Philip, they would have still been living in fear of the nations surrounding Macedonia, instead of ruling the world.

Several other officers were also executed according to Macedonian law, in order to eliminate the alleged attempt on Alexander's life. Murder of Cleitus and the execution of Callisthenes. Inwhen Philip assembled a large Macedonian army and invaded Thrace, he left his 16 years old son with the power to rule Macedonia in his absence as regent, which shows that even at such young age Alexander was recognized as quite capable.

During the seven-month siege of Tyre, Alexander received a letter from Darius offering a truce with a gift of several western provinces of the Persian Empire, but he refused to make peace unless he could have the a e biography alexander the great empire.

Akvan Div Khazawran-i Div Arzhang Div Div-e Sepid Koulad-Ghandi Huma bird Simurgh Rakhsh Shabdiz Shabrang. Bactria and India would become Macedonian provinces. But as the Macedonian army advanced deep into Thrace, the Thracian tribe of Maedi bordering north-eastern Macedonia rebelled and posed a danger to the country.

He founded a city which he named Buckephalia, in his horse's name. Not surprisingly, the Greeks in Alexander's army did not have significant role in the upcoming battles, only to be discharged when convenient. The victory at Issus opened the road for Syria and Phoenicia. There never came to unity between Macedonians and Persians and there wasn't even a unity among the Macedonians. Some ancient historians recorded that the Macedonians won the battle thanks to his bravery.

Then it turned westward to Persia. After Philotas was executed according to the Macedonian custom, Alexander ordered next the execution of Philotas' father, general Parmenio. The mainland Greeks had hoped that the Persian navy and the Greek commander Memnon would land in Greece and help them launch a rebellion against Antipater's Macedonians, transfer the war into Macedonia itself, and cut off Alexander in Asia, but the sealing of the coast prevented this from happening.

In the same time 30, Persian youth already trained in Macedonian manner were recruited in the army.

In the autumn of BC, the Macedonian army's encountered the Persian forces under the command of King Darius III himself at a mountain pass at Issus in northwestern Syria. The 22 year-old king appointed Philip's experienced general Antipater as regent in his absence to preside over the affairs of Macedonia and Greece, left him a significant force of 13, Macedonian soldiers to watch Greece, Thrace, Illyria, and protect Macedonia, and set out for the Hellespont a e biography alexander the great Dardanelles in the spring of BC.

Concise Macedonia Ancient Macedonia Roman Macedonia Ottoman Macedonia Partitioned Macedonia. Alexander tortured and executed the accused leader of the conspiracy, Parmenio's son Philotas, the commander of the cavalry. The Macedonians spent two hard years in Bactria fighting a guerilla war against the followers of Bessus and the Sogdian ruler Spitamenes.

Alexander's second in command was 32nd president biography general Parmenio, the other important commanders being PerdiccasCraterusCoenus, Meleager, Antigonusand Parmenio's son Philotas, a e biography alexander the great.

He went further by ridiculing Alexander for claiming to be "son of Ammon" and for denouncing his own father Philip II. Artwork by Johnny Shumate. Phoenician ships burning the Macedonian siege towers Artwork by Johnny Shumate. Here Alexander ordered that a city be designed and founded in his name at the mouth of river Nile, as trading and military Macedonian outpost, the first of many to come. Paganini biography wikipedia was son of Philip IIKing of Macedonia, and Olympias, the princess of neighboring Epirus.

He defeated the Thracians and Tribalians in a e biography alexander the great of battles and drove the rebels beyond the river. In the army there a e biography alexander the great 25, Macedonians, 7, Greeks, and 7, Thracians and Illyrians, but the chief officers a e biography alexander the great all Macedonians, and Macedonians also commanded the foreign troops.

They would subdue all races on Earth.

a e biography alexander the great

With the conquered territories firmly in Macedonian control, Alexander completed the final preparations for the invasion of Asia.

Battle of Gaugamela At Tyre, Alexander received reinforcements from Europe, reorganized his forces, and started for Babylon. He continued marching south toward Egypt but was again held up by a e biography alexander the great at Gaza.

The ancient Greek historian Arrian cited the " old racial rivalry between the Greeks and Macedonians " that led to this hatred on both sides.

Alexander the Great

The Eastern Roman Empire fell in the 15 th century and Macedonia, Greece, and the whole southern Balkans came under the rule of the Turkish Empire. The Macedonians rescued him in a narrow escape from the village. His increasingly Oriental behavior eventually led to conflict with the Macedonian nobles and some Greeks in the train. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege.

Although seriously tempted to lift the siege and continue marching on Egypt, Alexander did not abandon the project and continued the siege, surrounding the island with ships and blasting the city walls with catapults.

Alexander remained in Egypt until the middle ofand then returned to Tyre before facing Darius. Sieges of Tyre and Gaza. Alexander was born in BC in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia.

At Tyre, Alexander received reinforcements from Europe, reorganized his a e biographies alexander the great, and started for Babylon. Antipater was in Thrace at the a e biography alexander the great and the Greeks took the opportunity to push back the Macedonian forces.

He was assassinated by Bessus, the satrap of Bactria which now proclaimed himself "King of the Kings", assuming the title of the Persian kings. Although allowed to return later, Alexander remained isolated and insecure at the Macedonian court.

As soon as the news of Alexander's death were known, the Greeks rebelled yet again and so begun the Lamian War. The period of rule of the Macedonian dynasty which ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from to is known as the "Golden Age" of the Empire. On the Persian side were numerous Asiatic nations - Bactrians, Indians, Medians, Sogdians, even Albanians from the Caucasus, the ancestors of the modern Albanians who many centuries later migrated to Europe and are now northern neighbors to the modern Greeks and western neighbors to the modern Macedonians.

However, on the bases of about hundred glosses, Macedonian words noted and explained by Greek writers, some place names from Macedonia, and names of individuals, most scholars believe that ancient Macedonian was a separate Indo-European language. He next demanded that Europeans, just like the Asians, follow the Oriental etiquette of prostrating themselves before the king - which he knew was regarded as an act of worship by the Greeks.

Callisthenes was soon executed on a charge of conspiracy, and we can only imagine how Aristotle received the news of his death. The Persian satrap surrendered and the Macedonians were welcomed by the Egyptians as liberators for they had despised living under Persian rule for almost two centuries. During the trial of Philotas Alexander raised the question of the use of the ancient Macedonian language. At the beginning of the battle the Persian a e biographies alexander the great split and separated the two Macedonians wings.

Biography of Alexander the Great

There is a claim that Pausanias was driven into committing the murder because he was denied justice by the king when he sought his support in punishing the Cleopatra's uncle Attalus for earlier mistreatment.

As the Illyrians and Thracians lived mainly from plunder, he told them to look at the enemy line glittering in gold Cartledge writes that Alexander would not allow his promotion of Hellenic culture to get in the way of his "one overriding ideal, the power and glory of Alexander". Why Pausanias killed the Macedonian king is a question that puzzled both ancient and modern historians. Antipater and Craterus jointly marched into Greece, defeated the Greek army at Crannon in Thessaly and brought the war to an end.

The two armies met on the battlefield the next morning, October 1, BC. But the Macedonians were unhappy with Alexander's Orientalization for they were proud of their Macedonian customs, culture, and language. Alexander the Great and the Macedonian cavalry crossing river Granicus.

Was it Veratrum album? The army was marching through the notorious Gerdosian desert during the middle of the summer. Alexander had ridden Bucephalus into every one of his battles in Europe and Asia, so when it died he was grief-stricken. But soon he had to act outside Macedonia. He let the Greeks know that it was not too late for them to change their minds, but the Thebans confident in their position called for all the Greeks who wished to set Greece free to join them against the Macedonians.

Alexander spoke Macedonian with his conationals, but used Greek in addressing the Greeks and the Asians, as Greek was widely taken as international language in ancient times. In BC series of allegations were brought up against some of Alexander's officers concerning a plot to murder him. His dream of conquering the Persian Empire now lays on his successor, his son king Alexander III. For he alone disdains to learn it. The army soon encountered the forces of King Darius III.

Suppression of the Greek Rebellion, Discharge of the Greeks, and the Death of Darius Meanwhile in Greece, the Greeks under the leadership of Sparta rose to a rebellion against the Macedonian occupation. Alexander knew the legend that said that the man who could untie the ancient knot was destined to rule the entire world. With the fall of Gaza, the whole Eastern Mediterranean coast was now secured and firmly in the hands of the Macedonians. Evidence from phonology indicates that the ancient Macedonian language was distinct from ancient Greek and closer to the Thracian and Illyrian languages.

Battle between Macedonians and Indians. Almost the entire Greek force was annihilated. King of Macedonia and Conqueror of the Persian Empire. Crossing of the Gerdosian desert on the way to Babylon. The Macedonian Empire of Alexander the Great. Gordium was a home of the famous so-called Gordian Knot. The Macedonians defeated the Persians and put them to flight and although the Greeks held their ground and fiercely fought, the battle ended in Macedonian victory.

Campaigns in Asia Minor. The rise of Rome put an end to Macedonian kingdoms. The Indians were defeated in a fierce battle, even though they fought with elephants, which the Macedonians had never seen before.

The army continued advancing as far as the river Hydaspes but at this point the Macedonians refused to go farther as reports were coming of far more larger and dangerous armies ahead equipped with many elephants and chariots.

Greece will remain under Macedonian rule for the next one and a half century. As his ship approached the Asia Minor's coast, he threw his spear from aboard and stuck it in the ground.

But there are also reports that that both Olympias and Alexander were responsible for the assassination, by driving the young man into committing the act. Battle of Issus In the autumn of BC, the Macedonian army's encountered the Persian a e biographies alexander the great under the command of King Darius III himself at a mountain pass at Issus in northwestern Syria.

Bactria and Sogdiana, the a e biography alexander the great eastern provinces of the Persian Empire came under Macedonian control. At age 12 he showed his equestrian skill to his father and all who were watching when he tamed Bucephalus, an unruly stallion horse, unable to be ridden and devouring the flesh of all who had tried.

This was to be an example to the rest of Greece and Athens and the other Greek city-states quickly rethought their quest for freedom.

Alexander entered the temple of Melcart, and had his sacrifice. The Macedonians lost only men according to tradition. But at the end the Macedonian army defeated the enemy and conquered the coast of Asia Minor. Not too long afterwards Coenus died and the army buried him with the highest honors.

The survivors biography of donald trump life and career the 50, Greeks which Darius had on his side at the beginning of the war were also among the Persian ranks. He and 80 of his close associates married Persian noblewomen.

A very difficult seven-month siege of the a e biography alexander the great followed. The travel down the river resumed and the Macedonian army reached the mouth of the Indus in the summer of BC. It is here that Alexander fell in love with and married the beautiful Sogdian princess Roxane.

With the split of the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern Byzantiumthe Macedonians came to play a major role in Byzantium. Marble bust of Alexander the Great. Alexander would ride Bucephalus in all of his major battles, together till the very end. Although he mourned his friend excessively and nearly committed suicide when he realized what he had done, all of Alexander's associates thereafter feared his paranoia and dangerous temper.

The fever became stronger with each following day to the point that he was unable to move and speak. The Macedonians spotted the lights from the Persian campfires and encouraged Alexander to lead his attack under cover of darkness. Macedonian silver tetradrachm of Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great performing sacrifice aboard Macedonian battleship.

The Greeks in the Macedonian train were mobilized by the Macedonians, and historians Peter Green and Ulrich Wilcken speak of them as hostages that would ensure the good behavior of their a e biographies alexander the great left behind in Greece under the watch of Antipater's Macedonian garrisons.

In Asia the Macedonian commanders who served Alexander fought each other for power. Getting closer to the Greeks, he reminded them that those were the people the Persians on the a e biography alexander the great side who provoked war with Greece, As the Illyrians and Thracians lived mainly from plunder, he told them to look at the enemy line glittering in gold Darius's army greatly outnumbered the Macedonians, but the Battle of Issus ended in a big victory for Alexander.

Macedonians storming the walls of Tyre Artwork by Johnny Shumate. Louvre Museum Paris Marble statue of Alexander the Great.

Artwork by Johnny Shumate Macedonians storming the a e biographies alexander the great of Tyre. According to the legend, on the way he was blessed with abundant rain, and guided across the desert by ravens. Alexander gave Darius a royal funeral and set out for Bactria after his murderer. But resistance put by Macedonian officers and by the Greek historian Callisthenes, the nephew of Aristotle who had joined the a e biography alexander the great, defeated the attempt.

Philip, the great Macedonian conqueror was dead, the man who liberated his own country and brought if from the edge of the abyss into a world power.

Family Split and the Assassination of Philip II But not too long after the defeat of the Greeks at Chaeronea, the royal family split apart when Philip married Cleopatra, a Macedonian girl of high nobility. He was inspiration for later conquerors such as Hannibal the Carthaginian, the Romans Pompey and Caesar, and Napoleon. Alexander then turned northward to central Asia Minor, to the city of Gordium. In Asia, the news of the beginning of the Greek rebellion had Alexander so deeply worried, that he immediately sent money to Antipater to counter it.

Battle of Granicus With the conquered territories firmly in Macedonian control, Alexander completed the final preparations for the invasion of Asia.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times.

Alexander was severally wounded in this attack when an arrow pierced his breastplate and his ribcage. Enraged, Alexander marched south covering miles in two weeks and appeared before the walls of Thebes with a large Macedonian army. By the a e biography alexander the great Alexander reached Susa thousands had died of heat and exhaustion. In this battle Alexander's horse Bucephalus was wounded and died.

In addition, he legitimized previous so-called marriages between soldiers and native women and gave them rich wedding gifts, no doubt to encourage such unions.

Alexander lost his temper, snatched the spear from the bodyguard standing near, and ran Cleitus through with it.

After his death, nearly all the noble Susa marriages dissolved, which shows that the Macedonians despised the idea. But he refused to take advantage of the situation because he wanted to defeat Darius in an equally matched battle so that the Persian king would never again dare to raise an army against him.

The priest told him that he was a son of Zeus Ammon, destined to rule the world, and this must have confirmed in him his belief of divine origin. Shortly before beginning of the planned Arabian campaign, he contracted a high fever after attending a private party at his friend's Medius of Larisa. Only the temples and the house of the poet Pindar were spared from destruction.

a e biography alexander the great

The greatest of Alexander's battles in India was at the river Hydaspes, against king Porus, one of the most powerful Indian rulers. Alexander assembled an army, led it against the rebels, and with swift action defeated the Maedi, captured their stronghold, and renamed it after himself to Alexandropolis.

Reluctantly, Alexander agreed to stop here. Little later, at Opis he proclaimed the discharge of 10, Macedonian veterans to be sent home to Macedonia with general Craterus. These Greeks had joined the Persians in the a e biographies alexander the great following the defeat of the Greek army by Philip II at Chaeronea. The Macedonians put the city under a siege which lasted two months, after which the scenario of Tyre was repeated. Alexander the Great, the Macedonian king and the great conqueror of Persian Empire, died at the age of 33 without designating a successor to the Macedonian Empire.

Alexander next killed Cleitus, another Macedonian noble, in a drunken brawl. Gold Medallion of Philip II of Macedon. Suppression of the Greek Rebellion, Discharge of the Greeks, and the Death of Darius. The wing of general Parmenio appeared to be backing down, but Alexander's cavalry rode straight after Darius and forced again his flight like he did at Issus.

Alexander then led the army south across Asia Minor. He adopted the Persian dress for ceremonies, gave orders for Persians to be enlisted in the army, and encouraged the Macedonians to marry Persian women. But the death of the old general did not sit well with every Macedonian in the army.

Then he marched back across Macedonia and on his return crushed in a single week the threatening Illyrians, before they could receive additional reinforcements. Alexander treated them with the respect out of consideration for their royalty. Marble bust of Alexander the Great Louvre Museum Paris. In fact Philip II had often remarked how proud he was to have Parmenio as his general. But the army mutinied hearing this. Tons of rocks and wood were poured into the water strip separating the island from the coast but its construction and the attacks from the city walls cost Alexander many of his bravest Macedonians.

Alexander spent his childhood watching his father transforming Macedonia into a great military power, winning victory after victory on the battlefields throughout the Balkans.

Alexander's death opened the anarchic age of the Successors and a bloody Macedonian civil war for power followed.

The Macedonians stormed the city, killing everyone in sight, women and children included. But not too long after the defeat of the Greeks at Chaeronea, the royal family split apart when Philip married Cleopatra, a Macedonian girl of high nobility. Like Carthaginian, Illyrian, and Thracian, ancient Macedonian was not recorded in writing.

Phoenician ships burning the Macedonian siege towers. Conquest of Egypt Alexander entered Egypt in the beginning of BC. But Alexander will never see this happen. At the temple, he was welcomed by the priests and spoke to the oracle. It was agreed that the army travel down south the rivers Hydaspes and Indus so that they might reach the Ocean on the southern edge of the world and from there head westward toward Persia.

Silver tetradrachm of Lysimachus with bust of Alexander the Great. That might explain why Pausanias was instantly put to death by Alexander's close friends as he attempted to flee the scene, instead of being captured alive and tried before the Macedonian assembly.

It is important to note the number of Greeks on the both sides. Asia will be won by the Macedonian spear! In the spring ofAlexander held a great victory celebration at Susa. Perdiccas and Meleager were murdered, Antigonus rose to control most of Asia, but his growth of power brought the other Macedonian generals in coalition against him. Cutting the Gordin knot with the sward. Alexander entered Egypt in the beginning of BC.

Artwork by Peter Connolly. Macedonian ships traveling traveling down Hydaspes and Indus rivers. In an enormous effort, the Macedonians begun building a mole that would connect the island-city with the coast.

Macedonian gold stater of Alexander the Great. When he finally caught up to him, he found the Persian king dead in his coach. Memnon fell sick and died while attempting to regain the lost Greek city of Miletus on the Asia Minor a e biography alexander the great, and the Persian plan to transfer the war into Europe well apart.

Campaigns in Asia Minor Alexander then led the army south across Asia Minor. But their initial victory did not last for long as Antipater returned with a large army, defeated the rebels, and regained Greece. When the walls finally gave in, the Macedonians poured their anger over the city defenders - 7, people were killed, 30, were sold as slaves.

The death of Buckephalus.The Greek commander Memnon and his men considerably slow down the advance of Alexander and many Macedonians died during the long and difficult sieges of the Greek cities of Halicarnassus, Miletus, Mylasa. Greek inscriptions were also found in Thrace and Illyria, the Thracians even inscribed their coins and vessels in Greek, and we know that both the Illyrians and the Thracians were not Greeks who had distinct languages.

Macedonia at Philip's death BC. He was killed in battle and the Macedonian Empire split into four main kingdoms - the one of Seleucus AsiaPtolemy EgyptLysimachus Thraceand Antipater's son Cassander Macedonia, including Greece. Two years later in BC, Philip gave his son a commanding post among the senior generals as the Macedonian army invaded Greece. National Archaeological Museum, Naples. In the summer of BC, Alexander's army crossed the heavily defended river during a violent thunderstorm to meet Porus' forces.

And when he learned that the Greeks were defeated, he proclaimed the end of the "Hellenic Crusade" and discharged all-Greek forces in his army.

Alexander the Great Biography

Still the Malli surrendered as Alexander became to recover from the grave wound. But now in Greece, upon rumors of his death, a major revolt broke out that engulfed the whole nation. Finally, Bessus was caught and executed for the murder of his king Darius III, and Spitamenes was killed by his own wife which was tired of running away. Trial of Philotas and the Murder of Parmenio To win the support of the Persian aristocracy Alexander appointed many Persians as provincial governors in his new empire.

Four months later, the Macedonians burned the royal palace in Persepolis, completing the end of the ancient Persian Empire. Some modern writers have erroneously concluded that the Macedonians spoke Greek based on few Greek inscriptions discovered in Macedonia, but that is by no means a proof that the Macedonian was not a distinct language. Alexander's general Perdiccas attacked the gates, broke into the city, and Alexander moved with the rest of the army behind him to prevent the Thebans from cutting him off.

Alexander the Great at Gordium. Heavy drinking was a cherished tradition at the Macedonian court and that day Cleitus publicly denounced the king before the present for the murders of Parmenio and Philotas. Marble statue of Alexander the Great Archaeological Museum Istanbul. Ironically, it is not the Persians but the Greek coastal cities which gave the greatest resistance to the Macedonians. The earlier Egyptian pharaohs were believed to be sons of Amon-Ra and Alexander as new ruler of Egypt wanted the god to acknowledge him as his son.

In earlyAlexander sent general Parmenio to occupy the Syrian cities and himself marched down the Phoenician coast where he received the surrender of all major cities except the island city of Tyre which refused to grant him access to sacrifice at the temple of the native Phoenician god Melcart. Alexander the Great Alexander of Macedon Biography. Sieges of Tyre and Gaza The victory at Issus opened the road for Syria and Phoenicia.

Meanwhile in Greece, the Greeks under the leadership of Sparta rose to a rebellion against the Macedonian occupation. The Macedonians were allowed to file past their leader for the last time before he finally succumbed to the illness on June 7, BC in the Macedonian month of Daesius. But the return was a disaster.

The Macedonians were defeated and expelled from Greece, but then Antipater received reinforcements james bentley biography Craterus who brought to Macedonia the 10, veterans discharged at Opis.